“Wie schafft es also eine kleine Volkswirtschaft ihre Individualinteressen zurück zu fahren?” – Dr. Leonhard Reis

In Bhutan wurde erst 2008 das erste demokratisch gewählte Parlament eingesetzt. Mit der bald darauf verabschiedeten Verfassung wurde Bhutan dadurch zu einer konstitutionellen Monarchie. Das Parlament beschloss mit Zustimmung des aufgeschlossenen Monarchen, ein Maß für Wohlstand einzuführen, das „Bruttosozialglück“ (gross national happiness).

„In der Entwicklung unseres Landes lassen wir uns von den vier Grundpfeilern des Bruttosozialglücks leiten: der Schutz der Umwelt, die Bewahrung unserer kulturellen Werte, eine wirtschaftliche und soziale Entwicklung, die alle einschließt, und eine gute Regierung. Dies drückt sich zum Beispiel in der hohen Priorität der Ausgaben für die Sozialpolitik aus, die in den letzten drei 5-Jahres-Plänen mehr als 30 Prozent des Staatsbudgets umfassten. Gesundheit und Bildung sind für die Bürger Bhutans größtenteils kostenlos. Die Wälder stehen unter Schutz und bedecken über 70 Prozent der Landesfläche. Für die Politik bedeutet die Anwendung des Bruttosozialglücks, dass unsere Regierung jede politische Entscheidung an diesem Maßstab messen muss. Das Gemeinwohl aller Bürger Bhutans ist entscheidend, und zwar nicht nur der heute lebenden Generationen, sondern auch der zukünftigen.“

Ist dieses multidimensionale Konzept von Wohlstand auch auf andere Gesellschaften übertragbar?

Sicher, diese Bereiche sind allen Menschen und Gemeinschaften gemeinsam. Sehr wichtig ist auch der Einschluss der kulturellen Gemeinschaft und der psychologischen Befindlichkeit. Wenn wir das Karma als Komponente des Wohlstands einbeziehen, ist dies wiederum schlecht auf westliche Gesellschaften übertragbar. Man muss dann diese 72 Bereiche auf den jeweiligen kulturellen Kontext anpassen. Doch muss man betonen, dass nicht alle Personen das Maximum an Glück in all diesen 72 Bereichen erreichen müssen. Es genügt ein akzeptables Niveau. Unser Wohlstandsmaß unterscheidet sich vom klassischen Konzept der Nutzenmaximierung westlicher Sozialwissenschaften auch in dieser Hinsicht.“

Auszug aus einem Interview mit dem ersten Premierminister Bhutans Jigmi Yoser Thinley

Quelle: http://www.suedasien.info/interviews/2891.html 


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